Abstract 1. DNA cleavage 2. Nanozymes 3. Hydrolytic DNA Cleavage by Nanozymes 4. Oxidative DNA Cleavage by Nanozymes 5. Light-dependent DNA cleavage 6. DNA cleavage process and mechanism 7. Comparison of nanozymes and protein-based nucleases 8. Applications of nanozyme-mediated DNA cleavage 9. Conclusions and future perspectives Acknowledgement
摘要 1. Introduction 2. Types of nanozymes - 2.1 Peroxidase mimics - 2.1.1 Iron based. - 2.1.2 Vanadium based. - 2.1.3 Noble metal based. - 2.1.4 Carbon based. - 2.1.5 Metal–organic framework (MOF) based. - 2.1.6 Other nanomaterial based. - 2.2 Oxidase mimics - 2.2.1 Gold based. - 2.2.2 Copper based. - 2.2.3 Molybdenum based. - 2.2.4 Platinum based. - 2.3 Catalase mimics - 2.4 Superoxide dismutase (SOD) mimics - 2.4.1 Carbon based. - 2.4.2 Cerium based. - 2.4.3 Melanin based. - 2.5 Hydrolase mimics - 2.5.1 Carbon based. - 2.5.2 Monolayer functionalized AuNP based. - 2.5.3 MOF based. - 2.6 Other enzyme mimics - 2.7 Multi-enzyme-mimicking nanozymes - 2.8 Multi-functional nanozymes 3. Engineering nanozyme activity and selectivity - 3.1 Size - 3.2 Shape and morphology - 3.3 Composition - 3.4 Forming complexes or hybrids - 3.5 Surface coating and modification - 3.6 Promoters and inhibitors - 3.7 pH and temperature - 3.8 Light - 3.9 Other strategies 4. Applications - 4.1 In vitro sensing - 4.1.1 H2O2 detection. - 4.1.2 Detection of glucose and other oxidase substrates. - 4.1.3 Nucleic acid detection. - 4.1.4 Protein detection. - 4.1.5 Cell (cancer markers on cell surface) detection. - 4.1.6 Ion detection.
Conflicts of interest
There are no conflicts to declare.
Astract 1. Introduction - 1.1 Enzyme-like activity of nanoparticles and discovery of nanozyme - 1.2 Rise of single-atom nanozymes - 1.3 Potential biomedical application 2. Single-atom nanozymes - 2.1 Fe single-atom nanozymes - 2.2 Pt single-atoms nanozymes - 2.3 Cu single-atoms nanozymes - 2.4 Zn single-atom nanozymes 3. Medical applications - 3.1 Cancer treatment - 3.2 Brain disease - 3.3 Wound healing Conclusion and prospective
Conflicts of interest There are no conflicts to declare.
Abstract Introduction Nanozymes using chemical compounds as chiral ligands Nanozymes using amino acids as chiral ligands Nanozymes using DNA as chiral ligands Perspectives Acknowledgements - Compliance with ethical standards - Conflict of interest The authors declare that they have no com- peting interests. References
Abstract 1. Introduction 2. Types of MOF nanozymes - 2.1. Peroxidase - 2.2. Oxidase - 2.3. Superoxide dismutase - 2.4. Hydrolase - 2.5. Multi-enzyme assembly 3. Strategies for improving MOF nanozyme activity - 3.1. 2D MOF nanosheets - 3.2. Bimetal MOFs - 3.3. Valence state regulation - 3.4. MOF-based single-atom nanozymes 4. Multi-functionalization of MOF nanozymes - 4.1. MOF nanozymes act as natural enzyme carriers - 4.2. MOF nanozymes act as analytical signal sources 5. Biochemical sensing applications - 5.1. Detection of substrates and substrate-related molecules - 5.2. Sensing based on nanozyme activity modulation - 5.3. Detection of species impacting nanozyme catalyzed systems - 5.4. Replacing natural enzymes to generate amplified signals 6. Conclusions and perspectives
Conflicts of interest - There are no conflicts to declare.
Highlights Abstract 1. Introduction 2. Representative nanozymes for antibacterialactivities - 2.1 Metal or metal oxide or non-noble metal derivatives nanozymes - 2.2 Carbon-based nanozymes - 2.3 Polymer-based nanozymes 3. Antibacterial mechanism and optimization of nanozymes - 3.1 Antibacterial mechanism - 3.2 Activity optimization 4. Applications - 4.1 Nanozymes resistant bacteria - 4.2 Nanozymes scavenging biofilm 5. Conclusions and prospects
Declaration of interests
Notes The authors declare no competing financial interest.
摘要 Introduction Cofactors of nanozymes Metal ions ATP Other cofactors De novo synthesis of nanozymes with enzyme-like active centers Creating enzymatic microenvironment for nanozymes using amino acids Chemical synthesis of single-atom nanozymes with spatial coordination Conclusion and perspectives - Compliance and ethicsof interest.
NANOZYMES FOR PATHOLOGICAL DISEASE DIAGNOSIS NANOZYMES FOR LIVE CELL AND ORGANELLE IMAGING NANOZYMES FOR IN VIVO IMAGING SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS - PW, TW, ML, and XY researched the literature and wrote the review. All authors revised and polished the review.
Abstract 1. Introduction 2. Single-atom catalysts 3. Applications of SAzymes - 3.1 Sensing - 3.2 Organic pollutants degradation - 3.3 Therapy 4. Conclusion and Perspectives
Acknowledgements Keywords References
ABSTRACT CONTENTS 1. INTRODUCTION 2. CLASSIFICATION OF NANOZYMES 3. CATALYTIC MECHANISM OF NANOZYMES - 3.1. Oxidase Family - 3.1.1. Glucose Oxidase. - 3.1.2. Sulfite Oxidase. - 3.2. Peroxidase Family - 3.2.1. Peroxidase. - 3.2.2. Glutathione Peroxidase. - 3.2.3. Haloperoxidase. - 3.3. Catalase - 3.4. Superoxide Dismutase - 3.5. Others 4. TUNING THE CATALYTIC ACTIVITIES OF NANOZYMES - 4.1. Size - 4.2. Morphology - 4.3. Surface Modification - 4.4. Composition - 4.5. Constructing Hybrid Nanomaterials - 4.6. pH and Temperature - 4.7. Ions or Molecules - 4.8. Light 5. RECENT RESEARCH PROCESS OF NANOZYMES - 5.1. Nanozymes in Sensing - 5.1.1. Detection of Ions. - 5.1.2. Detection of Molecules - 5.1.3. Detection of Nucleic Acids - 5.1.4. Detection of Proteins. - 5.1.5. Detection of Cancer Cells. - 5.2. Nanozymes in Environmental Treatment - 5.2.1. Nanozymes in Degrading Organic Pollutants in Wastewater. - 5.2.2. Nanozymes in Degrading Chemical Warfare Agents. - 5.2.3. Nanozymes in Inhibiting Biofilm Formation. - 5.3. Nanozymes in Antibacteria and Cancer Treatment - 5.3.1. Nanozymes in Antibacteria. - 5.3.2. Nanozymes in Cancer Therapy. - 5.4. Nanozymes in Antioxidation - 5.4.1. Nanozymes in Cytoprotection. - 5.4.2. Nanozymes in Alleviating Inflammation. - 5.4.3. Nanozymes in Treating Alzheimer’s Disease. - 5.4.4. Nanozymes in Treating Parkinson’s Disease.
AUTHOR INFORMATION Biographies ACKNOWLEDGMENTS ABBREVIATIONS
摘要 Introduction 1. Natural photo-related enzymes 2. Materials used and enzymatic reactions mimicked 3. Catalytic mechanism - 3.1 Electron and energy transfer - 3.2 Proof of reactive oxygen species (ROS) 4. Regulating nanozyme activity - 4.1. Doped nanozymes - 4.2. Nanozyme catalysis with mediators 5. Applications - 5.1 In vitro sensing - 5.2 Chemical synthesis - 5.3 Removal of organic pollutants - 5.4 Cleavage and repair of DNA - 5.5 Anti-bacteria activities and photodynamic therapy 6. Conclusions and future perspectives Conflicts of interest - There are no conflicts to declare.
Acknowledgements Notes and references
摘要 INTRODUCTION REACTION ROUTES UNDERLYING THE CATALYTIC ACTIVITY OF REPRESENTATIVE INs INs FOR NANOCATALYTIC CANCER THERAPY - Nanocatalysts Based on Iron Oxide Nanostructures - Other Types of Iron-Containing Nanostructures With Catalytic Activity
CRITICAL CONSIDERATIONS FOR THE IRON NANOZYME-MEDIATED BIOCATALYTIC TUMOR THERAPY - Intratumoral H2O2 Level in Cancer Cells - Optimization of the Catalytic - Microenvironment - Physicochemical Factors - Biosafety/Biocompatibility/Biodegradability - Stimulation by External Irritation
FUTURE PERSPECTIVE AND CURRENT CHALLENGES